Added Sugar and Dental Caries in Children

A Scientific Update and Future Steps
Published:October 29, 2018DOI:


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.


      Subscribe to Dental Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Marcenes W.
        • Kassebaum N.J.
        • Bernabé E.
        • et al.
        Global burden of oral conditions in 1990-2010: a systematic analysis.
        J Dent Res. 2013; 92: 592-597
        • Kassebaum N.J.
        • Smith A.G.C.
        • Bernabé E.
        • et al.
        GBD 2015 Oral Health Collaborators. Global, Regional, and National Prevalence, Incidence, and Disability-Adjusted Life Years for Oral Conditions for 195 Countries, 1990-2015: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors.
        J Dent Res. 2017; 96: 380-387
        • Hojer J.A.
        • Maunsbach A.B.
        The Vipeholm dental caries study: purposes and organisation.
        Acta Odontol Scand. 1954; 11: 195-206
        • Gustafsson B.E.
        The Vipeholm dental caries study: survey of the literature on carbohydrates and dental caries.
        Acta Odontol Scand. 1954; 11: 207-231
        • Gustafsson B.E.
        • Quensel C.
        • Swenander Lanke L.
        • et al.
        The Vipeholm dental caries study; the effect of different levels of carbohydrate intake on caries activity in 436 individuals observed for five years.
        Acta Odontol Scand. 1954; 11: 232-264
        • Krasse B.
        The Vipeholm dental caries study: recollections and reflections 50 years later.
        J Dent Res. 2001; 80: 1785-1788
      1. World Health Organization (WHO). Guideline: sugars intake for adults and children. 2015. Available at: Accessed August 31, 2018.

        • Fidler Mis N.
        • Braegger C.
        • Bronsky J.
        • et al.
        ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. Sugar in infants, children and adolescents: a position paper of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition.
        J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017; 65: 681-696
        • Vos M.B.
        • Kaar J.L.
        • Welsh J.A.
        • et al.
        • American Heart Association Nutrition Committee of the Council on Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health; council on clinical cardiology; council on cardiovascular disease in the young; council on cardiovascular and stroke nursing; council on epidemiology and prevention; council on functional genomics and translational biology; and council on hypertension
        Added sugars and cardiovascular disease risk in children: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.
        Circulation. 2017; 135: e1017-e1034
        • Marshall T.A.
        Nomenclature, characteristics, and dietary intakes of sugars.
        J Am Dent Assoc. 2015; 146: 61-64
        • Al Rawahi S.H.
        • Asimakopoulou K.
        • Newton J.T.
        Theory based interventions for caries related sugar intake in adults: systematic review.
        BMC Psychol. 2017; 5: 25
        • Touger-Decker R.
        • van Loveren C.
        Sugars and dental caries.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 78: 881S-892S
        • Sorensen G.
        • Emmons K.
        • Hunt M.K.
        • et al.
        Model for incorporating social context in health behavior interventions: applications for cancer prevention for working-class, multiethnic populations.
        Prev Med. 2003; 37: 188-197
        • Eicher-Miller H.A.
        • Zhao Y.
        Evidence for the age-specific relationship of food insecurity and key dietary outcomes among US children and adolescents.
        Nutr Res Rev. 2018; 31: 98-113
        • Kong A.
        • Odoms-Young A.M.
        • Schiffer L.A.
        • et al.
        Racial/ethnic differences in dietary intake among WIC families prior to food package revisions.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2013; 45: 39-46
        • LaRowe T.L.
        • Adams A.K.
        • Jobe J.B.
        • et al.
        Dietary intakes and physical activity among preschool-aged children living in rural American Indian communities before a family-based healthy lifestyle intervention.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2010; 110: 1049-1057
        • Chi D.L.
        • Hopkins S.
        • O'Brien D.
        • et al.
        Association between added sugar intake and dental caries in Yup'ik children using a novel hair biomarker.
        BMC Oral Health. 2015; 15: 121
        • Drewnowski A.
        • Rehm C.D.
        Consumption of added sugars among US children and adults by food purchase location and food source.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2014; 100: 901-907
        • Bailey R.L.
        • Fulgoni V.L.
        • Cowan A.E.
        • et al.
        Sources of added sugars in young children, adolescents, and adults with low and high intakes of added sugars.
        Nutrients. 2018; 10 ([pii:E102])
        • Rosinger A.
        • Herrick K.
        • Gahche J.
        • et al.
        Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among U.S. youth, 2011-2014.
        NCHS Data Brief. 2017; : 1-8
        • Munsell C.R.
        • Harris J.L.
        • Sarda V.
        • et al.
        Parents' beliefs about the healthfulness of sugary drink options: opportunities to address misperceptions.
        Public Health Nutr. 2016; 19: 46-54
        • Pettigrew S.
        • Jongenelis M.
        • Chapman K.
        • et al.
        Factors influencing the frequency of children's consumption of soft drinks.
        Appetite. 2015; 91: 393-398
        • Tipton J.A.
        Caregivers' psychosocial factors underlying sugar-sweetened beverage intake among non-Hispanic black preschoolers: an elicitation study.
        J Pediatr Nurs. 2014; 29: 47-57
        • Mazarello Paes V.
        • Hesketh K.
        • O'Malley C.
        • et al.
        Determinants of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in young children: a systematic review.
        Obes Rev. 2015; 16: 903-913
        • Harris T.S.
        • Ramsey M.
        Paternal modeling, household availability, and paternal intake as predictors of fruit, vegetable, and sweetened beverage consumption among African American children.
        Appetite. 2015; 85: 171-177
        • McClain A.D.
        • Chappuis C.
        • Nguyen-Rodriguez S.T.
        • et al.
        Psychosocial correlates of eating behavior in children and adolescents: a review.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2009; 6: 54
        • Riebl S.K.
        • MacDougal C.
        • Hill C.
        • et al.
        Beverage choices of adolescents and their parents using the theory of planned behavior: a mixed methods analysis.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016; 116: 226-239.e1
        • Ezendam N.P.
        • Evans A.E.
        • Stigler M.H.
        • et al.
        Cognitive and home environmental predictors of change in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among adolescents.
        Br J Nutr. 2010; 103: 768-774
        • Beets M.W.
        • Tilley F.
        • Kyryliuk R.
        • et al.
        Children select unhealthy choices when given a choice among snack offerings.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014; 114: 1440-1446
        • Jansen E.
        • Mulkens S.
        • Emond Y.
        • et al.
        From the Garden of Eden to the land of plenty. Restriction of fruit and sweets intake leads to increased fruit and sweets consumption in children.
        Appetite. 2008; 51: 570-575
        • Rossen L.M.
        • Kobernik E.K.
        Food insecurity and dietary intake among US youth, 2007-2010.
        Pediatr Obes. 2016; 11: 187-193
        • Tomayko E.J.
        • Mosso K.L.
        • Cronin K.A.
        • et al.
        Household food insecurity and dietary patterns in rural and urban American Indian families with young children.
        BMC Public Health. 2017; 17: 611
        • Sharkey J.R.
        • Nalty C.
        • Johnson C.M.
        • et al.
        Children's very low food security is associated with increased dietary intakes in energy, fat, and added sugar among Mexican-origin children (6-11 y) in Texas border Colonias.
        BMC Pediatr. 2012; 12: 16
        • Comeau J.
        • Boyle M.H.
        Patterns of poverty exposure and children's trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors.
        SSM Popul Health. 2017; 4: 86-94
        • Luff G.M.
        • Gray J.J.
        Complex messages regarding a thin ideal appearing in teenage girls' magazines from 1956 to 2005.
        Body Image. 2009; 6: 133-136
        • Jansen E.C.
        • Miller A.L.
        • Lumeng J.C.
        • et al.
        Externalizing behavior is prospectively associated with intake of added sugar and sodium among low socioeconomic status preschoolers in a sex-specific manner.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017; 14: 135
        • Santiago-Torres M.
        • Adams A.K.
        • Carrel A.L.
        • et al.
        Home food availability, parental dietary intake, and familial eating habits influence the diet quality of urban Hispanic children.
        Child Obes. 2014; 10: 408-415
        • Ritchie L.D.
        • Raman A.
        • Sharma S.
        • et al.
        Dietary intakes of urban, high body mass index, African American children: family and child dietary attributes predict child intakes.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2011; 43: 236-243
        • Jackson J.A.
        • Smit E.
        • Manore M.M.
        • et al.
        The family-home nutrition environment and dietary intake in rural children.
        Nutrients. 2015; 7: 9707-9720
        • Poti J.M.
        • Slining M.M.
        • Popkin B.M.
        Where are kids getting their empty calories? Stores, schools, and fast-food restaurants each played an important role in empty calorie intake among US children during 2009-2010.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014; 114: 908-917
        • Dubowitz T.
        • Ghosh-Dastidar M.
        • Cohen D.A.
        • et al.
        Diet and perceptions change with supermarket introduction in a food desert, but not because of supermarket use.
        Health Aff (Millwood). 2015; 34: 1858-1868
        • Lent M.R.
        • Vander Veur S.
        • Mallya G.
        • et al.
        Corner store purchases made by adults, adolescents and children: items, nutritional characteristics and amount spent.
        Public Health Nutr. 2015; 18: 1706-1712
        • Watts A.W.
        • Miller J.
        • Larson N.I.
        • et al.
        Multicontextual correlates of adolescent sugar-sweetened beverage intake.
        Eat Behav. 2018; 30: 42-48
        • Bevelander K.E.
        • Engels R.C.
        • Anschütz D.J.
        • et al.
        The effect of an intervention on schoolchildren's susceptibility to a peer's candy intake.
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013; 67: 829-835
        • Avery A.
        • Bostock L.
        • McCullough F.
        A systematic review investigating interventions that can help reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in children leading to changes in body fatness.
        J Hum Nutr Diet. 2015; 28: 52-64
        • Abdel Rahman A.
        • Jomaa L.
        • Kahale L.A.
        • et al.
        Effectiveness of behavioral interventions to reduce the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Nutr Rev. 2018; 76: 88-107
        • Smith L.H.
        • Holloman C.
        Piloting "sodabriety": a school-based intervention to impact sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in rural Appalachian high schools.
        J Sch Health. 2014; 84: 177-184
        • van de Gaar V.M.
        • Jansen W.
        • van Grieken A.
        • et al.
        Effects of an intervention aimed at reducing the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages in primary school children: a controlled trial.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2014; 11: 98
        • Vargas-Garcia E.J.
        • Evans C.E.L.
        • Prestwich A.
        • et al.
        Interventions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages or increase water intake: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Obes Rev. 2017; 18: 1350-1363
        • Taber D.R.
        • Chriqui J.F.
        • Vuillaume R.
        • et al.
        The association between state bans on soda only and adolescent substitution with other sugar-sweetened beverages: a cross-sectional study.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015; 12: S7
        • VanEpps E.M.
        • Roberto C.A.
        The influence of sugar-sweetened beverage warnings: a randomized trial of adolescents' choices and beliefs.
        Am J Prev Med. 2016; 51: 664-672
        • Kansagra S.M.
        • Kennelly M.O.
        • Nonas C.A.
        • et al.
        Reducing sugary drink consumption: New York City's approach.
        Am J Public Health. 2015; 105: e61-e64
        • Silver L.D.
        • Ng S.W.
        • Ryan-Ibarra S.
        • et al.
        Changes in prices, sales, consumer spending, and beverage consumption one year after a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages in Berkeley, California, US: a before-and-after study.
        PLoS Med. 2017; 14: e1002283
        • Colchero M.A.
        • Guerrero-López C.M.
        • Molina M.
        • et al.
        Beverages sales in Mexico before and after implementation of a sugar sweetened beverage tax.
        PLoS One. 2016; 11: e0163463
        • Claro R.M.
        • Levy R.B.
        • Popkin B.M.
        • et al.
        Sugar-sweetened beverage taxes in Brazil.
        Am J Public Health. 2012; 102: 178-183
        • Caro J.C.
        • Corvalán C.
        • Reyes M.
        • et al.
        Chile's 2014 sugar-sweetened beverage tax and changes in prices and purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages: an observational study in an urban environment.
        PLoS Med. 2018; 15: e1002597
        • American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD)
        Caries-risk assessment and management for infants, children, and adolescents.
        Pediatr Dent. 2017; 39: 197-204
        • National Academies of Sciences
        • Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) Health and Medicine Division
        • et al.
        Strategies to limit sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in young children: proceedings of a workshop.
        National Academies Press, 2017
        • Heyman M.B.
        • Abrams S.A.
        • Section on Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition
        • Committee on Nutrition
        Fruit juice in infants, children, and adolescents: current recommendations.
        Pediatrics. 2017; 139
        • Panel on Macronutrients
        • Panel on the definition of dietary fiber, subcommittee on upper reference levels of nutrients, subcommittee on interpretation and uses of dietary reference intakes, and the standing committee on the scientific evaluation of dietary reference intakes
        • Institute of Medicine (IOM)
        Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids.
        National Academies Press, 2005
        • Magnuson B.A.
        • Carakostas M.C.
        • Moore N.H.
        • et al.
        Biological fate of low-calorie sweeteners.
        Nutr Rev. 2016; 74: 670-689
        • Magnuson B.A.
        • Roberts A.
        • Nestmann E.R.
        Critical review of the current literature on the safety of sucralose.
        Food Chem Toxicol. 2017; 106: 324-355
        • Sylvetsky A.C.
        • Rother K.I.
        Nonnutritive sweeteners in weight management and chronic disease: a review.
        Obesity (Silver Spring). 2018; 26: 635-640
        • Prochaska J.O.
        • Redding C.A.
        • Evers K.E.
        Glanz K. Rimer B.K. Viswanath K. In health behavior and health education: theory, research, and practice. 4th edition. John Wiley & Sons, 2008: 97-122
        • Horwath C.C.
        • Schembre S.M.
        • Motl R.W.
        • et al.
        Does the transtheoretical model of behavior change provide a useful basis for interventions to promote fruit and vegetable consumption?.
        Am J Health Promot. 2013; 27: 351-357
        • Ferris F.D.
        • von Gunten C.F.
        • Emanuel L.L.
        Knowledge: insufficient for change.
        J Palliat Med. 2001; 4: 145-147
        • Bartholomew L.K.
        • Mullen P.D.
        Five roles for using theory and evidence in the design and testing of behavior change interventions.
        J Public Health Dent. 2011; 71: S20-S33
        • Chi D.L.
        Injecting theory into the dental behavior intervention research process.
        J Public Health Dent. 2011; 71: S35
        • Ige T.J.
        • DeLeon P.
        • Nabors L.
        Motivational interviewing in an obesity prevention program for children.
        Health Promot Pract. 2017; 18: 263-274
        • Chi D.L.
        Motivational interviewing-based approaches in dental practice settings may improve oral health behaviors and outcomes.
        J Evid Based Dent Pract. 2017; 17: 420-421
        • Nansel T.R.
        • Laffel L.M.
        • Haynie D.L.
        • et al.
        Improving dietary quality in youth with type 1 diabetes: randomized clinical trial of a family-based behavioral intervention.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015; 12: 58
        • Mallonee L.F.
        • Boyd L.D.
        • Stegeman C.
        A scoping review of skills and tools oral health professionals need to engage children and parents in dietary changes to prevent childhood obesity and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages.
        J Public Health Dent. 2017; 77: S128-S135
        • Dooley D.
        • Moultrie N.M.
        • Sites E.
        • et al.
        Primary care interventions to reduce childhood obesity and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: Food for thought for oral health professionals.
        J Public Health Dent. 2017; 77: S104-S127
        • Zoellner J.
        • Estabrooks P.A.
        • Davy B.M.
        • et al.
        Exploring the theory of planned behavior to explain sugar-sweetened beverage consumption.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2012; 44: 172-177
        • Touger-Decker R.
        • Mobley C.
        • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
        Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: oral health and nutrition.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013; 113: 693-701
        • Cuevas J.
        • Chi D.L.
        SBIRT-based interventions to improve pediatric oral health behaviors and outcomes: considerations for future behavioral SBIRT interventions in dentistry.
        Curr Oral Health Rep. 2016; 3: 187-192
        • Chi D.L.
        Parent refusal of topical fluoride for their children: clinical strategies and future research priorities to improve evidence-based pediatric dental practice.
        Dent Clin North Am. 2017; 61: 607-617
        • Chi D.L.
        • Basson A.
        Surveying dentists’ perceptions of caregiver refusal of topical fluoride.
        JDR Clin Trans Res. 2018; 3: 314-320
        • D’Alonzo K.T.
        Getting started in CBPR: lessons in building community partnerships for new researchers.
        Nurs Inq. 2010; 17: 282-288
        • Chi D.L.
        Reducing Alaska Native paediatric oral health disparities: a systematic review of oral health interventions and a case study on multilevel strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake.
        Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013; 72: 21066
        • Chi D.L.
        • Luu M.
        • Chu F.
        A scoping review of epidemiologic risk factors for pediatric obesity: Implications for future childhood obesity and dental caries prevention research.
        J Public Health Dent. 2017; 77: S8-S31
        • Scheirer M.A.
        Linking sustainability research to intervention types.
        Am J Public Health. 2013; 103: e73-e80
        • Raittio E.
        • Aromaa A.
        • Kiiskinen U.
        • et al.
        Income-related inequality in perceived oral health among adult Finns before and after a major dental subsidization reform.
        Acta Odontol Scand. 2016; 74: 348-354
        • Herzog K.
        • Scott J.
        • Chi D.L.
        Children’s oral health inequalities: intersectionality of race, ethnicity, and income.
        in: Treadwell H.M. Evans C.A. Oral health in America: removing the stain of disparity. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC2019
      2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). National Institutes of Health (NIH) Reporter. NIH research portfolio online reporting tools. Project information grant number 1R56DE025813-01A1. 2018a. Reducing sugared fruit drinks in Alaska Native children. Available at: Accessed July 15, 2018.

      3. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). National Institutes of Health (NIH) Reporter. NIH research portfolio online reporting tools. Project information grant number 1R01NR015417-01A1. 2018b. Back to basics: addressing childhood obesity through traditional foods in Alaska. Available at: Accessed July 15, 2018.

        • Cabrera Escobar M.A.
        • Veerman J.L.
        • Tollman S.M.
        • et al.
        Evidence that a tax on sugar sweetened beverages reduces the obesity rate: a meta-analysis.
        BMC Public Health. 2013; 13: 1072
      4. KYUK Archives. Talk line. 2013 program. Available at: Accessed July 15, 2018.

      5. Dewey C. Washington post. Why Chicago’s soda tax fizzled after two months — and what it means for the anti-soda movement. 2017. Available at: Accessed July 15, 2018.

        • Du M.
        • Tugendhaft A.
        • Erzse A.
        • et al.
        Sugar-sweetened beverage taxes: industry response and tactics.
        Yale J Biol Med. 2018; 91: 185-190
        • Pomeranz J.L.
        Implications of the supplemental nutrition assistance program tax exemption on sugar-sweetened beverage taxes.
        Am J Public Health. 2015; 105: 2191-2193
        • Leung C.W.
        • Blumenthal S.J.
        • Hoffnagle E.E.
        • et al.
        Associations of food stamp participation with dietary quality and obesity in children.
        Pediatrics. 2013; 131: 463-472
        • Lewit E.M.
        • Hyland A.
        • Kerrebrock N.
        • et al.
        Price, public policy, and smoking in young people.
        Tob Control. 1997; 6: S17-S24
        • Moynihan P.
        Sugars and dental caries: evidence for setting a recommended threshold for intake.
        Adv Nutr. 2016; 7: 149-156
        • Powell E.S.
        • Smith-Taillie L.P.
        • Popkin B.M.
        Added sugars intake across the distribution of US children and adult consumers: 1977-2012.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016; 116: 1543-1550
        • Sheiham A.
        • James W.P.
        A reappraisal of the quantitative relationship between sugar intake and dental caries: the need for new criteria for developing goals for sugar intake.
        BMC Public Health. 2014; 14: 863
        • Sheiham A.
        • James W.P.
        A new understanding of the relationship between sugars, dental caries and fluoride use: implications for limits on sugars consumption.
        Public Health Nutr. 2014; 17: 2176-2184
        • Taubes G.
        The case against sugar.
        Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2016
        • Vanderlee L.
        • Goodman S.
        • Sae Yang W.
        • et al.
        Consumer understanding of calorie amounts and serving size: implications for nutritional labelling.
        Can J Public Health. 2012; 103: e327-e331
        • Walker R.W.
        • Goran M.I.
        Laboratory determined sugar content and composition of commercial infant formulas, baby foods and common grocery items targeted to children.
        Nutrients. 2015; 7: 5850-5867
        • Powell L.M.
        • Schermbeck R.M.
        • Chaloupka F.J.
        Nutritional content of food and beverage products in television advertisements seen on children's programming.
        Child Obes. 2013; 9: 524-531
        • Hingle M.D.
        • Castonguay J.S.
        • Ambuel D.A.
        • et al.
        Alignment of children's food advertising with proposed federal guidelines.
        Am J Prev Med. 2015; 48: 707-713
        • Powell L.M.
        • Wada R.
        • Kumanyika S.K.
        Racial/ethnic and income disparities in child and adolescent exposure to food and beverage television ads across the U.S. media markets.
        Health Place. 2014; 29: 124-131
        • Kearns C.E.
        • Schmidt L.A.
        • Glantz S.A.
        Sugar industry and coronary heart disease research: a historical analysis of internal industry documents.
        JAMA Intern Med. 2016; 176: 1680-1685
        • Kearns C.E.
        • Apollonio D.
        • Glantz S.A.
        Sugar industry sponsorship of germ-free rodent studies linking sucrose to hyperlipidemia and cancer: an historical analysis of internal documents.
        PLoS Biol. 2017; 15: e2003460
        • Litman E.A.
        • Gortmaker S.L.
        • Ebbeling C.B.
        • et al.
        Source of bias in sugar-sweetened beverage research: a systematic review.
        Public Health Nutr. 2018; 21: 2345-2350
        • Kearns C.E.
        • Glantz S.A.
        • Schmidt L.A.
        Sugar industry influence on the scientific agenda of the National Institute of Dental Research's 1971 National Caries Program: a historical analysis of internal documents.
        PLoS Med. 2015; 12: e1001798
        • Kearns C.
        • Schmidt L.
        • Apollonio D.
        • et al.
        The sugar industry's influence on policy.
        Science. 2018; 360: 501
      6. Wadman M. NIH pulls the plug on controversial alcohol trial. Science magazine. 2018. Available at: Accessed July 15, 2018.

        • Popkin B.M.
        • Hawkes C.
        Sweetening of the global diet, particularly beverages: patterns, trends, and policy responses.
        Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2016; 4: 174-186
        • Pomeranz J.L.
        • Mozaffarian D.
        • Micha R.
        Can the government require health warnings on sugar-sweetened beverage advertisements?.
        JAMA. 2018; 319: 227-228
        • Boles M.
        • Adams A.
        • Gredler A.
        • et al.
        Ability of a mass media campaign to influence knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors about sugary drinks and obesity.
        Prev Med. 2014; 67: S40-S45
      7. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Food and nutrition service. Implications of restriction the use of food stamp benefits. 2007. Available at: Accessed July 1, 2018.

        • Chrisinger B.W.
        Ethical imperatives against item restriction in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.
        Prev Med. 2017; 100: 56-60
        • Robles B.
        • Montes C.E.
        • Nobari T.Z.
        • et al.
        Dietary behaviors among public health center clients with electronic benefit transfer access at farmers' markets.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2017; 117: 58-68
        • Richards M.R.
        • Sindelar J.L.
        Rewarding healthy food choices in SNAP: behavioral economic applications.
        Milbank Q. 2013; 91: 395-412
        • Ammerman A.S.
        • Hartman T.
        • DeMarco M.M.
        Behavioral economics and the supplemental nutrition assistance program: making the healthy choice the easy choice.
        Am J Prev Med. 2017; 52: S145-S150
        • Epstein L.H.
        • Finkelstein E.
        • Raynor H.
        • et al.
        Experimental analysis of the effect of taxes and subsides on calories purchased in an on-line supermarket.
        Appetite. 2015; 95: 245-251